TYPES OF AUTOMATION
Office automation refers to the varied computer machinery and software used to digitally create, collect, store, manipulate and relay office information needed for accomplishing basic office tasks. Raw data storage, electronic transfer and the management of electronic business information comprise the basic activities of an office automation system. Office automation helps in optimizing existing office procedure. The back bone of office automation is a local area network (LAN), which allows users to transfer data, mail or even voice across a network. It makes it possible for office tasks to be accomplished faster, it eliminate the need for large staff etc.
Building automation is the automatic centralized control of a buildings heating, ventilation and air conditioning, lighting and other systems through a building management system or building automation system (BAS). The objectives of building automation is to improve occupant comfort, efficient operation of building systems, and reduction in energy consumption and operating cost. It works in the form of a distributed control system. BAS main functionality is to keep building climate within a specified range, provides light to rooms based on occupant schedule ( in the absence of over switches to the contrary), monitors device failures and performance in all systems and also provides malfunction alarms to building maintenance staff. The BAS reduces building energy and maintenance costs compared to a non-controlled building
Power automation is the automatic control and monitoring of power system which includes processes associated with generation and delivery of power. It makes it possible to monitor different units and relay their status and health information and also carry out fault detection and correction without human interference. An example of a power automation system is the supervisory control data acquisition (SCADA) system that operates with codded signals over communication channels so as to provide control of remote equipment (using typically one communication channel per remote station).
A home automation is an extension of building automation that involves the automation of housework or household activities. Providing an automated home for the weak and elderly tends to improve the quality of life of that person. It involves the control of domestic activities that includes the control of entertainment systems, house plant and yard watering, lighting control system and the use of domestic robots.
A home automation system integrates all the electrical devices in the house with each other, it includes centralized control of lighting, HVAC(Heat, ventilation and air conditioning) appliances, security locks and other systems to improve comfort, conveniences, security and energy efficiency. Imagine after working so late at night and coming home to be welcomed at the door by lights illuminating from your room without touching any light switch. The level of security and comfort you will feel will be unimaginable and also being able to have your fan being regulated automatically depending on the current weather condition. Home automation provides us with what is often referred to as a “smart home”, a home that will be able to identify and recognize you, that can automatically regulate the light to your preferred taste, automatically open your door and tune in to your favorite radio station, switch on the lights for security reasons. It makes it possible to link lighting, entertainment, security, telecommunications and air conditioning to a centralized system.
The number of houses that make use of an automated system that ranges from automated security lock, automated air conditioning system that helps in maintaining a predefined temperature to a burglar alarm has been in a rapid rise since its inception.
HOME AUTOMATION SYSTEMS
Home automation systems in home and residential buildings provides electronic systems that make possible the automation of household appliances. The new stream of home automation has developed into a vast one and the current market is flooded with a variety of home automation systems and device manufacturers.
The types of home automation systems based on their control systems are:
1. Individual control systems
This is the first type of home automation system to hit the market. Here, each devices will have an independent control dedicated to it.
2. Distributed control systems
This is used for emergency shutdown. With this you can be able to change or preset the parameters of several similar devices and their on/off timing separately.
3. Central control systems
These are computerized systems programed to handle all functions of multiple utilities like air conditioning systems, home entertainment, doors, windows, refrigerators and cooking systems all at the same time regardless of whether you are at home or not. You connect to the control systems through telephone or internet from anywhere in the world.
The types of home automation systems based on their carrier mode are:
1. Powerline carrier systems
The less expensive type of home automation system operates over the home existing wiring or powerline carrier. These can range from X10 based lamp timers, to more sophisticated systems that require installation by a trained professional.
2. Wireless systems
Also available are wireless home automation systems that utilize radio frequency technology. They are often used to operate lights, sometimes in conjunction with a hardwired lighting control system.
3. Hardwired system
Wired or hardwired home control system are the most reliable and expensive. This systems can operate over high-grade communications cable such as category 5e, or their own proprietary “bus” cable. That is why it is best to plan for them when a house is being constructed. Hardwired systems can perform more tasks at a time and do them quickly and reliably, making them ideal for larger homes. They can also integrate more systems in the home, effectively tying together indoor and outdoor lighting, audio and video equipment, security systems even heating and cooling system into one control package that will be easy and intuitive to operate.
4. Internet protocol control system
Internet protocol (IP) control automation system makes use of the internet, gives each device under its control an internet protocol address and creates a local area network (LAN) in the home. Hence the home can be interacted with over the internet with the possibility of live video streaming and real time control.
HOME AUTOMATION STANDARDS
. Security alarm interfaces and sensors,
. Home sensors (e.g. water, humidity, temperature, light)
. Access control (e.g. door locks),
. Heating, ventilating and air cooling (HVAC) control,
. Audio video control, and
. Appliance management.